Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The Company’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates these estimates and judgments, including those related to accrued research and development expenses, stock-based compensation, and the estimated fair values of equity instruments. Management evaluates its estimates on an ongoing basis. The Company bases its estimates on various assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company and the Company’s chief operating decision maker view the Company’s operations and manage its business in one operating segment, which is the business of developing and commercializing pharmaceuticals. The Company operates in only one segment.
Deferred Financing Costs
The Company capitalizes certain legal, accounting, and other fees and costs that are directly attributable to in-process equity financings as deferred offering costs until such financings are completed. Upon the completion of an equity financing, these costs are recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in capital of the related offering. Upon the completion of the IPO in August 2021, approximately $2.6 million of offering costs related to the IPO were reclassified to additional paid-in capital. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had deferred financing costs of $0.06 million and as of September 30, 2022, the Company had no deferred financing costs.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company deposits its cash with reputable financial institutions that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). This cash is held in checking, cash sweep, and money market accounts. At times, deposits held may exceed the amount of insurance provided by the FDIC. The Company maintains an insured cash sweep account in which cash from its main operating checking account is invested overnight in highly liquid, short-term investments. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity date of 90 days or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company has not experienced any losses in its cash and cash equivalents and believes they are not exposed to significant credit risk.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy to prioritize the inputs used in the Company’s fair value measurements. These tiers include Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions. The Company believes the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable, accrued expenses and debt approximate their estimated fair values due to the short-term maturities of these financial instruments.
Interest income consists of interest income earned on cash equivalents from interest bearing demand accounts.
Patent costs related to obtaining and maintaining patent protection in both the United States and other countries are expensed as incurred. Patents costs are classified as general and administrative expenses.
Research and Development
Research and development costs consist of expenses incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s product candidates. Such expenses include expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, manufacturing and supply scale-up expenses and the cost of acquiring and manufacturing preclinical and clinical trial supply, outsourced laboratory services, including materials and supplies used to support the Company’s research and development activities, and payments made for license fees and milestones that have not been demonstrated to have commercial value. Such costs are expensed in the periods in which they are incurred. Upfront payments and milestone payments for licensed technology are expensed as research and development as incurred or when the milestone is achieved or is determined to be probable of being achieved. Advanced payments for goods or services to be received in the future for research and development activities are recorded as prepaid expenses and expensed as the related goods are received or services are performed.
From inception until March 24, 2021, the Company operated as a limited liability company taxed as a partnership. Therefore, any income tax liability or benefit through that date accrued to the Company’s members. Since March 24, 2021, the Company has operated as a C-Corporation and accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the differences between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company recognizes net deferred tax assets to the extent that the Company believes these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, management considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. If management determines that the Company would be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, management would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
The Company records uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process whereby (1) management determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, management recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within income tax expense. Any accrued interest and penalties are included within the related tax liability.
In March 2021, the Company’s board of directors and shareholders approved the 2021 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan (“the 2021 Plan”). For stock options granted under the 2021 Plan, the Company measures and recognizes compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to employees, directors, and non-employees, based on estimated fair values recognized using the straight-line method over the requisite service period. The fair value of options to purchase common stock granted to employees is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The calculation of stock-based compensation expense requires that the Company make certain assumptions and judgments about variables used in the Black-Scholes model, including the expected term of the stock-based award, expected volatility of the underlying common stock, dividend yield, and the risk-free interest rate. Forfeitures are accounted for in the period they occur. Restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted under the 2021 Plan are measured at the grant date fair value of the common stock, with corresponding compensation expense recognized ratably over the requisite service period. Refer to Note 7- Equity Incentive Plan for further discussion.
Comprehensive loss includes net loss and other comprehensive income (loss) for the periods presented. The Company did not have other comprehensive income (loss) items such as unrealized gains and losses and so for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, and September 30, 2021, comprehensive loss was equal to the net loss.
Net Loss Per Common Unit/Share
On March 24, 2021, the Company converted from an LLC to a C-corporation. Upon the conversion, each outstanding common unit and preferred unit was converted into one share of common stock and preferred stock, respectively. Common units had similar rights and characteristics of common stock issued upon the conversion. In calculating net loss per share, the Company retrospectively applied the effects of the conversion to the number of common units outstanding prior to the conversion. Net loss per share for periods prior to the conversion to a C-corporation refers to net loss per common unit.
Basic net loss per unit/share is calculated by dividing net loss attributable to common unitholders or shareholders by the weighted-average number of units or shares outstanding during the period, contingently issuable restricted stock units for which no future service is required as a condition to the delivery of the underlying common stock, and pre-funded warrants because their exercise requires only nominal consideration for the delivery of shares (collectively, “basic shares”), without consideration of common unit or share equivalents. Diluted net loss per unit or share is calculated by adjusting basic shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common unit or share equivalents outstanding for the period. For purposes of the diluted net loss per unit or share calculation, preferred units or shares, profit interests, and warrants to purchase preferred units or shares are considered to be common unit or share equivalents but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per common unit or share if their effect would be anti-dilutive.
As the Company has reported a net loss for the periods presented, diluted net loss per common unit or share is the same as the basic net loss per common unit or share for the periods presented.
The common unit or share equivalents that are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per common unit or share but could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future are as follows:
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or other standard-setting bodies that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef