Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Use of Estimates


The Company’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates these estimates and judgments, including those related to accrued research and development expenses, stock-based compensation, and the estimated fair values of equity instruments. Management evaluates its estimates on an ongoing basis. The Company bases its estimates on various assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.


Segment Information


Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company and the Company’s chief operating decision maker view the Company’s operations and manage its business in one operating segment, which is the business of developing and commercializing pharmaceuticals. 


Cash and Cash Equivalents


The Company deposits its cash and cash equivalents with accredited financial institutions that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), which are held in checking and cash sweep accounts. At times, deposits held may exceed the amount of insurance provided by the FDIC. The Company maintains an insured cash sweep account in which cash from its main operating checking account is invested overnight in highly liquid, short-term investments. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity date of 90 days or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. 


Concentrations of Credit Risk


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of a default by the financial institutions holding the Company’s cash and cash equivalents to the extent of the amounts held in excess of FDIC limits. The Company limits its credit risk by placing its cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions it believes are of high quality. To date, the Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash and cash equivalents.

Fair Value Measurement


The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy to prioritize the inputs used in the Company’s fair value measurements. These tiers include Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions. The Company believes the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their estimated fair values due to the short-term nature of these assets and liabilities.


Interest Income


Interest income consists of interest income earned on cash and cash equivalents from interest bearing demand accounts.


Patent Costs


                Patent costs related to obtaining and maintaining patent protection in both the United States and other countries are expensed as incurred. Patents costs are classified as general and administrative expenses.


Research and Development 


Research and development costs consist of expenses incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s product candidates. Such expenses include expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, manufacturing and supply scale-up expenses and the cost of acquiring and manufacturing preclinical and clinical trial supply, outsourced laboratory services, including materials and supplies used to support the Company’s research and development activities, and payments made for license fees and milestones that have not been demonstrated to have commercial value. Such costs are expensed in the periods in which they are incurred. Upfront payments and milestone payments for licensed technology are expensed as research and development as incurred or when the milestone is achieved or is determined to be probable of being achieved. Advanced payments for goods or services to be received in the future for research and development activities are recorded as prepaid expenses and expensed as the related goods are received or services are performed.


Income Taxes


The Company has operated as a C-Corporation since March 2021 and accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the differences between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.


The Company recognizes net deferred tax assets to the extent that the Company believes these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, management considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. If management determines that the Company would be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, management would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.

The Company records uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process whereby (1) management determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, management recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within income tax expense. Any accrued interest and penalties are included within the related tax liability.


Stock-Based Compensation


In March 2021, the Company’s board of directors and shareholders approved the Dermata Therapeutics, Inc. 2021 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”). For stock options granted under the 2021 Plan, the Company measures and recognizes compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to employees, directors, and non-employees, based on estimated fair values recognized using the straight-line method over the requisite service period. The fair value of options to purchase Common Stock granted to employees is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The calculation of stock-based compensation expense requires that the Company make certain assumptions and judgments about variables used in the Black-Scholes model, including the expected term of the stock-based award, expected volatility of the underlying Common Stock, dividend yield, and the risk-free interest rate. Forfeitures are accounted for in the period they occur. Restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted under the 2021 Plan are measured at the grant date fair value of the Common Stock, with corresponding compensation expense recognized ratably over the requisite service period.




The Company performs an assessment of warrants upon issuance to determine their proper classification in the financial statements based upon the warrant’s specific terms, in accordance with the authoritative guidance provided in Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 480 Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480 and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed in the Company’s own common stock and whether the warrant holders could potentially require cash settlement of the warrants. The Company accounts for modifications and exchanges of warrants in accordance with ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt — Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging — Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force) (“ASU 2021-04”).


For issued or modified warrants that meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be liability-classified and recorded at their initial fair value on the date of issuance and remeasured at fair value at each balance sheet date thereafter. The Company has performed an assessment of all warrants issued and modified and determined that the Company’s warrants are equity-classified.   


 Comprehensive Loss


Comprehensive loss includes net loss and other comprehensive income (loss) for the periods presented. The Company did not have other comprehensive income (loss) items such as unrealized gains and losses and so for the years ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, comprehensive loss was equal to the net loss.


Net Loss Per Share of Common Stock 


Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss attributable to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the period. The weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding includes (i) contingently issuable restricted stock units for which no future service is required as a condition to the delivery of the underlying Common Stock, (ii) pre-funded warrants because their exercise requires only nominal consideration for the delivery of shares, and (iii) shares held in abeyance because there is no consideration required for delivery of the shares, (collectively, “basic shares”), without consideration of common share equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by adjusting basic shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common share equivalents outstanding for the period. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, stock options and warrants are considered to be common share equivalents but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per common share if their effect would be anti-dilutive.

As the Company has reported a net loss for the periods presented, diluted net loss per common share is the same as the basic net loss per common share for the periods presented.




Year Ended December 31,
















Net loss


$ (7,794,690 )


$ (9,610,913 )










Basic and diluted net loss per common share


$ (2.67 )


$ (13.92 )

Weighted-average basic and diluted common shares










The common share equivalents that are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per common share but could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future are as follows:  




As of December 31,
















Common Stock Options









Common Stock Warrants









Total potentially dilutive securities










Recent Accounting Pronouncements


For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company has reviewed recent accounting standards and identified the following as relevant to the Company.


In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures. ASU 2023-09 requires disaggregated information about a reporting entity’s effective tax rate reconciliation as well as information on income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 is effective for public entities with annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on its financial statements and income tax footnote.